Blue Whale Skeleton

The 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) Skeleton at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait City, State of Kuwait

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

Article Reference:  Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). The 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) Skeleton at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait City, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 128, August 2015, pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-kuwait.webs.com/blue-whale-skeleton

The Skeleton of the 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) which stranded on the Kazma (Kadmah) coast in Kuwait in 1963 and is displayed at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 24.06.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/14586187903/

On Tuesday 24th June 2014, I have visited, accompanied with my daughter Nora, the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait City, State of Kuwait.

The Kuwait Educational Science Museum (Science and Natural History Museum) is located on Abdullah Al Mubarak Street, Kuwait City, State of Kuwait. The museum explores the country's technological and scientific progress and it contains big zoological collections, artifacts and demonstrations of the Petroleum industry in Kuwait (Khalaf, April 2014).

The museum is organized in the following departments: Natural History Department, Space Science Department, Planetarium, Electronics Department, Machinery Department, Zoology Department, Aviation Department and a Health hall (Wikipedia; Khalaf, April 2014).

The Skeleton of the 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus Linnaeus, 1758) is displayed at Hamad Mohammad Al-Atiqi (Museum Director 1972-1988) Hall. The Blue Whale was found stranded on Kazma (Kadmah) shore in Kuwait in 1963. It is known that these whales live in the oceans, but entered the Arabian Gulf because of a cancerous vertebral ailment.

Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa standing infront of the Skeleton of the 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) which stranded on the Kazma (Kadmah) coast in Kuwait in 1963 and is displayed at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait. Photo by: Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 24.06.2014.

Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa standing infront of the Skeleton of the 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) which stranded on the Kazma (Kadmah) coast in Kuwait in 1963 and is displayed at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait. Photo by: Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 24.06.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/14585503604/

The Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus Linnaeus, 1758) is a marine mammal belonging to the baleen whales (Mysticeti). At 30 metres (98 feet) in length and 170 tonnes (190 short tons) or more in weight, it is the largest existing animal and the heaviest that ever existed (Wikipedia).


Long and slender, the blue whale's body can be various shades of bluish-grey dorsally and somewhat lighter underneath. There are at least three distinct subspecies: Balaenoptera musculus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 of the North Atlantic and North Pacific, Balaenoptera musculus intermedia Burmeister, 1871 of the Southern Ocean and Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda Ichihara, 1966 (also known as the pygmy blue whale) found in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific OceanBalaenoptera musculus indica Blyth, 1859, found in the Indian Ocean, may be another subspecies. As with other baleen whales, its diet consists almost exclusively of small crustaceans known as krill (Wikipedia).


Blue whales were abundant in nearly all the oceans on Earth until the beginning of the twentieth century. For over a century, they were hunted almost to extinction by whalers until protected by the international community in 1966. A 2002 report estimated there were 5,000 to 12,000 blue whales worldwide, located in at least five groups. More recent research into the Pygmy subspecies suggests this may be an underestimate. Before whaling, the largest population was in the Antarctic, numbering approximately 239,000 (range 202,000 to 311,000). There remain only much smaller (around 2,000) concentrations in each of the eastern North PacificAntarctic, and Indian Ocean groups. There are two more groups in the North Atlantic, and at least two in the Southern Hemisphere (Wikipedia).

Frontal view of the Skeleton of the 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) which stranded on the Kazma (Kadmah) coast in Kuwait in 1963 and is displayed at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 24.06.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/14379799867/

Taxonomy 


Blue whales are rorquals (family Balaenopteridae), a family that includes the humpback whale, the fin whaleBryde's whale, the sei whale, and the minke whale. The family Balaenopteridae is believed to have diverged from the other families of the suborder Mysticeti as long ago as the middle Oligocene (28 Ma ago). It is not known when the members of those families diverged from each other (Wikipedia). 

 

The blue whale is usually classified as one of eight species in the genus Balaenoptera; one authority places it in a separate monotypic genus, Sibbaldus, but this is not accepted elsewhere. DNA sequencing analysis indicates that the blue whale is phylogenetically closer to the sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) and Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera brydei) than to other Balaenoptera species, and closer to the humpback whale (Megaptera) and the gray whale (Eschrichtius) than to the minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata and Balaenoptera bonaerensis). If further research confirms these relationships, it will be necessary to reclassify the rorquals (Wikipedia).

Blue Whale Information Sign at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 24.06.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/14569308382/ 

Museum Information Sign: Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus). Found on Kadmah shore in Kuwait on 1963. It is known that these whales live in the oceans, but entered the Arabian Gulf because of Cancerous vertebral ailment… Distribution: Found in the Antarctic. In winter it travels to the African coast avoiding tropical seas… Diet: Planktons and Shrimps… Features: The largest mammal the world has ever seen… Length: 65 – 110 feet (24 – 33 m)… Weight: Up to 130 tons… Gestation: The gestation period is 10 – 11 months, giving birth to one calf, capable of diving, swimming and suckling… Endangered animals from over kill: Fewer than 1000 whales now exist. Living in the oceans.

There have been at least 11 documented cases of blue/fin hybrid adults in the wild. Arnason and Gullberg (1993) describe the genetic distance between a blue and a fin as about the same as that between a human and a gorilla. Researchers working off Fiji believe they photographed a hybrid humpback/blue whale (Wikipedia).


The first published description of the blue whale comes from Robert Sibbald's “Phalainologia Nova” (1694). In September 1692, Sibbald found a blue whale that had stranded in the Firth of Forth—a male 24 m (78 feet)-long—which had "black, horny plates" and "two large apertures approaching a pyramid in shape" (Wikipedia). 


The specific name musculus is Latin and could mean "muscle", but it can also be interpreted as "little mouse". Carl Linnaeus, who named the species in his seminal “Systema Naturae” of 1758, would have known this and may have intended the ironic double meaning. Herman Melville called this species sulphur-bottom in his novel “Moby-Dick’ due to an orange-brown or yellow tinge on the underparts from diatom films on the skin. Other common names for the blue whale have included Sibbald's rorqual (after Sibbald, who first described the species), the great blue whale and the great northern rorqual. These names have now fallen into disuse. The first known usage of the term blue whale was in Melville's “Moby-Dick”, which only mentions it in passing and does not specifically attribute it to the species in question. The name was really derived from the Norwegian blåhval, coined by Svend Foyn shortly after he had perfected the harpoon gun; the Norwegian scientist G. O. Sars adopted it as the Norwegian common name in 1874 (Wikipedia). 


Authorities classify the species into three or four subspecies: B. m. musculus, the northern blue whale consisting of the North Atlantic and North Pacific populations, B. m. intermedia, the southern blue whale of the Southern OceanB. m. brevicauda, the pygmy blue whale found in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific, and the more problematic B. m. indica, the great Indian rorqual, which is also found in the Indian Ocean and, although described earlier, may be the same subspecies as B. m. brevicauda (Wikipedia).

Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa standing beside of the Skeleton of the 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) which stranded on the Kazma (Kadmah) coast in Kuwait in 1963 and is displayed at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait. Photo by: Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 24.06.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/14383688567/

Description and Behaviour


The blue whale has a long tapering body that appears stretched in comparison with the stockier build of other whales. The head is flat, U-shaped and has a prominent ridge running from the blowhole to the top of the upper lip. The front part of the mouth is thick with baleen plates; around 300 plates (each around one metre (3.2 feet) long) hang from the upper jaw, running 0.5 m (1.6 feet) back into the mouth. Between 70 and 118 grooves (called ventral pleats) run along the throat parallel to the body length. These pleats assist with evacuating water from the mouth after lunge feeding (Wikipedia).


The dorsal fin is small, ranging in height from 8–70 centimeters (3.1–27.6 in) (usually 20–40 centimeters (7.9–15.7 in)) and averaging about 28 centimetres (11 in). It is visible only briefly during the dive sequence. Located around three-quarters of the way along the length of the body, it varies in shape from one individual to another; some only have a barely perceptible lump, but others may have prominent and falcate (sickle-shaped) dorsals. When surfacing to breathe, the blue whale raises its shoulder and blowhole out of the water to a greater extent than other large whales, such as the fin or sei whales. Observers can use this trait to differentiate between species at sea. Some blue whales in the North Atlantic and North Pacific raise their tail fluke when diving. When breathing, the whale emits a spectacular vertical single-column spout up to 12 metres (39 feet), typically 9 metres (30 feet). Its lung capacity is 5,000 litres (1320 U.S. gallons). Blue whales have twin blowholes shielded by a large splashguard (Wikipedia).


The flippers are 3–4 metres (9.8–13.1 feet) long. The upper sides are grey with a thin white border; the lower sides are white. The head and tail fluke are generally uniformly grey. The whale's upper parts, and sometimes the flippers, are usually mottled. The degree of mottling varies substantially from individual to individual. Some may have a uniform slate-grey color, but others demonstrate a considerable variation of dark blues, greys and blacks, all tightly mottled (Wikipedia).

Frontal view of the Skeleton of the 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) which stranded on the Kazma (Kadmah) coast in Kuwait in 1963 and is displayed at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 24.06.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/14383518688/

Blue whales can reach speeds of 50 kilometres per hour (31 mph) over short bursts, usually when interacting with other whales, but 20 kilometres per hour (12 mph) is a more typical traveling speed. When feeding, they slow down to 5 kilometres per hour (3.1 mph) (Wikipedia).


Blue whales most commonly live alone or with one other individual. It is not known how long traveling pairs stay together. In locations where there is a high concentration of food, as many as 50 blue whales have been seen scattered over a small area. They do not form the large, close-knit groups seen in other baleen species (Wikipedia).

Cancerous vertebral ailment caused the adherence of the two vertebras of the 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) which stranded on the Kazma (Kadmah) coast in Kuwait in 1963. Educational Science Museum in Kuwait. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 24.06.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/14566795991/

References and internet Websites :


American Cetacean Society Fact Sheet – Blue Whales. Archived from the original on 11 July 2007. Animal Records. Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Retrieved 29 May 2007.

Arnason, U. and A. Gullberg (1993). Comparison between the complete mtDNA sequences of the blue and fin whale, two species that can hybridize in nature. Journal of Molecular Ecology 37 (4): 312–322. 
Arnason, U., Gullberg A. & Widegren, B. (1 September 1993). Cetacean mitochondrial DNA control region: sequences of all extant baleen whales and two sperm whale species. Molecular Biology and Evolution 10 (5): 960–970. 
Assessment and Update Status Report on the Blue Whale Balaenoptera musculus (PDF). Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 2002. 
Barnes, L.G., McLeod, S.A. (1984). The fossil record and phyletic relationships of gray whales. In Jones M.L. et al. The Gray Whale. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press. pp. 3–32. ISBN 0-12-389180-9
Best, P.B. (1993). Increase rates in severely depleted stocks of baleen whales. ICES J. Mar Sci. 50 (2): 169–186. 
Best, P.B. et al. (2003). The abundance of blue whales on the Madagascar Plateau, December 1996. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (IWC) 5 (3): 253–260. 
Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus): Eastern North Pacific Stock (NOAA Stock Reports, 2009), p. 178. 
Bortolotti, Dan (2008). Wild Blue: A Natural History of the World’s Largest Animal. St. Martin's Press. 
Branch, T.A. (2007). Abundance of Antarctic blue whales south of 60°S from three complete circumpolar sets of surveys. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 9 (3): 87–96. 
Branch, T.A.; Abubaker, E. M. N.; Mkango, S.; Butterworth, D. S. (2007). Separating southern blue whale subspecies based on length frequencies of sexually mature females. Marine Mammal Science 23 (4): 803–833. 
Branch, T.A., K. Matsuoka and T. Miyashita (2004). Evidence for increases in Antarctic blue whales based on Bayesian modelling. Marine Mammal Science 20 (4): 726–754. 
Branch, T. A., K. M. Stafford, D. M. Palacios (2007). Past and present distribution, densities and movements of blue whales Balaenoptera musculus in the Southern Hemisphere and northern Indian Ocean. Mammal Review 37 (2): 116–175. 
Calambokidis, J. and G. Steiger (1998). Blue Whales. Voyageur Press. ISBN 0-89658-338-4
Calambokidis J., G. H. Steiger, J. C. Cubbage, K. C. Balcomb, C. Ewald, S. Kruse, R. Wells and R. Sears (1990). Sightings and movements of blue whales off central California from 1986–88 from photo-identification of individuals. Rep. Whal. Comm. 12: 343–348. 
Capelotti, P.J. (ed.), Quentin R. Walsh. (2010). The Whaling Expedition of the Ulysses, 1937–38, p. 28. 
Caspar, Dave (April 2001). Ms. Blue's Measurements (PDF). Seymour Center, University of California, Santa Cruz. 
Christensen, I., Haug, T., Øien, N. (1992). A review of feeding and reproduction in large baleen whales (Mysticeti) and sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus in Norwegian and adjacent waters. Fauna Norvegica Series a 13: 39–48. 
Clarke, Arthur C. (1962). Profiles of the Future; an Inquiry into the Limits of the Possible. New York: Harper & Row, 1962. 
Cummings, W.C. and P.O. Thompson (1971). Underwater sounds from the blue whale Balaenoptera musculus. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 50 (4): 1193–1198.
Evans, Peter G. H. (1987). The Natural History of Whales and Dolphins. 
Gambell, R (1979). The blue whale. Biologist 26: 209–215. 
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Hjort, J. and Ruud, J.T. (1929). Whaling and fishing in the North Atlantic. Rapp. Proc. Verb. Conseil int. Explor. Mer 56. 
Hucke-Gaete, R.; B. Carstens, A. Ruiz-Tagle y M. Bello. Blue Whales in Chile: The Giants of Marine Conservation (PDF). Rufford Small Grants Foundation. Retrieved 22 March 2009. 
Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo, Layla P. Osman, Carlos A. Moreno, Ken P. Findlay, and Don K. Ljungblad (2003). Discovery of a Blue Whale Feeding and Nursing Ground in Southern Chile. The Royal Society: s170–s173. 
Ichihara, T. (1966). The pygmy blue whale B. m. brevicauda, a new subspecies from the Antarctic in: Whales, dolphins and porpoises. Page(s) 79–113. 
Kawamura, A. (1980). A review of food of balaenopterid whales. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute 32: 155–197.

Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa standing beside the Skeleton of the 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) which stranded on the Kazma (Kadmah) coast in Kuwait in 1963 and is displayed at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait. Photo by: Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 24.06.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/14383601329/

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie’t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman (1982). A’maar Al-Haywanat (Animal Ages). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 18, Third Year, First Semester, Saturday 6.11.1982. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 7. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). Blue Whales (Balaenoptera musculus) from the State of Kuwait, Arabian Gulf. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 14, Fifth Year, Shawal 1407 AH, June 1987 AD. pp. 1-14. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). The Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 26, Tenth Year, January 1992. pp. 1-3. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae’q Al-Nouma’n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (Gründer) (seit Juni 2001). Wale und Delphine Club Yahoo Group. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Waleunddelphine/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004 / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten. Zweite erweiterte Auflage, August 2004: 460 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Die Wal Sonderausstellung "Delphinidae Delphionidae" und "Kleinwale in Nord- und Ostsee" im Museum Alexander Koenig in Bonn, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 35, Twenty-second Year, September 2004. pp. 1. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Der Schweinswal (Phocoena phocoena) in der Nord- und Ostsee...The Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 36, Twenty-second Year, October 2004. pp. 1-7. 
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Thema des Tages (5. Januar 2005): In See gespülter Indopazifischer Buckeldelfin (Sousa chinensis) in Thailand nach Tagen gerettet. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 37, Twenty-third Year, January 2005. pp. 1-3. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Story of Prophet Yunus (Jonah) and the Whale. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005. pp. 9-13. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Jaffa (Yaffa): The History of an Old Palestinian Arab City on the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 7-8. 
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Andromeda Sea Monster of Jaffa. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 8. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005. / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palaestina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980 - 2005. ISBN 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage, August 2005: 376 Seiten. Publisher: Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm 
Khalaf, Norman Ali (Co-Author) (2005, 2006). Chapter 3: Geography, Flora and Fauna. Pages 32-39. in: Palestine: A Guide. By Mariam Shahin, Photography by George Azar. Co-Author: Norman Ali Khalaf. Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Publishing Group, 2005, 2006. xi + 471 pages. Appendices to page 500. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). A Bryde’s Whale (Balaenoptera edeni) Stranding on Al Mamzar Beach, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 50. February 2006. pp. 1-5. https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Quastenflosser/conversations/messages/22 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Mammalia Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2006. / Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. ISBN 3-00-017294-7. Erste Auflage, Juli 2006, 484 pp. Publisher: Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/mammaliaarabica.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (Fauna of Palestine). In: Wikipedia-Arabic, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, September 2007, Sha’ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (Article in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Cetacea Palaestina: The Whales and Dolphins in Palestinian Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008, Thu Al-Qi’ada 1429 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://cetacea-palaestina.webs.com/

The Skeleton of the 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) which stranded on the Kazma (Kadmah) coast in Kuwait in 1963 and is displayed at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 24.06.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/14566821181/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm  

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2012). Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus Lilljeborg, 1861) sighted off the Mediterranean Coast of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 100, January 2012. pp. 1-6. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/message/90 & http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Wale_und_Delphine/message/344 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 Seiten / Pages (English / German Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) at the Educational Science Museum, Kuwait City, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 112, April 2014, Jumada Al Akhera 1435 AH. pp. 1-10. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/coelacanthkuwait2013.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2014). Fauna Palaestina – Part Four. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2014 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Vier. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2014. ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2014, Ramadan 1435 H. pp. 456 (English part 378 pages and Arabic part 78 pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-part-1.webs.com/faunapalaestina4.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). A Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Stranding on Failaka Island, State of Kuwait. Gazelle - The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178-6288). Number 119. November 2014. pp. 1-13. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-kuwait.webs.com/ 


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). The 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) Skeleton at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait City, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 128, August 2015, pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-kuwait.webs.com/blue-whale-skeleton

Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa standing beside the Skeleton of the 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) which stranded on the Kazma (Kadmah) coast in Kuwait in 1963 and is displayed at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait. Photo by: Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 24.06.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/14570211265/

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Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa standing infront of the Skeleton of the 24-meters Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) which stranded on the Kazma (Kadmah) coast in Kuwait in 1963 and is displayed at the Educational Science Museum in Kuwait. Photo by: Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 24.06.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/14400780960/